- Affordable rental housing that provides social services on-site or on-site referral services
- Services can be coordinated by nonprofits or government organizations
- May be focused on low-income families, individuals experiencing homelessness, seniors, people with disabilities, veterans, or others, with strongest results for individuals experiencing homelessness
- Housing is generally integrated, with tenants living in scattered-site units throughout the community or in buildings in which a majority of units are not reserved for participants
- Housing is not time limited
Strength of evidence
Evidence level: Strong (second-highest tier)
Strong (second-highest tier)
Ranked as having the second-highest level of evidence by County Health Rankings and Roadmaps
Low- and moderate-income adults and families
Outcomes and impact
- Reduces homelessness
- Increases housing stability
- Reduces hospital utilization
- Reduces behavioral health issues like anxiety and substance use
Keys to successful implementation
- Note: This content is under review
- Partner with housing developers and landlords, along with social service agencies and providers, to identify appropriate housing units and program sites.
- Recruit program participants through partnerships with social service agencies and community-based organizations, along with strategic street outreach.
- Invest in a wide range of on-site services and staff, such as general case management, mental health (trauma-informed care, cognitive behavioral therapy, 12-step recovery, and more), professional and vocational training, and life skill-building classes.
- Engage with program participants as with any other tenant, including providing a lease in their name, the ability to renew a lease at their discretion, and community and behavioral guidelines and rules similar to those found in any other housing community.
- Subsidize rent to a significant degree, with tenants paying no more than 30 percent of their income towards rent and other living costs.
- Incorporate consumer choice as much as possible, such as providing program participants with a range of housing styles and neighborhoods and deciding which on-site services to take advantage of.