Service-enriched housing

Program basics

  • Affordable rental housing that provides social services on-site or on-site referral services
  • Services can be coordinated by nonprofits or government organizations
  • May be focused on low-income families, individuals experiencing homelessness, seniors, people with disabilities, veterans, or others, with strongest results for individuals experiencing homelessness
  • Housing is generally integrated, with tenants living in scattered-site units throughout the community or in buildings in which a majority of units are not reserved for participants
  • Housing is not time limited

Strength of evidence

Evidence level: Strong (second-highest tier)

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Strong (second-highest tier)

Ranked as having the second-highest level of evidence by County Health Rankings and Roadmaps


Target population

Low- and moderate-income adults and families

Program cost

Not available

Implementation locations

  • Nationwide

Dates active

1980s-present

Outcomes and impact

  • Reduces homelessness
  • Increases housing stability
  • Reduces hospital utilization
  • Reduces behavioral health issues like anxiety and substance use

Keys to successful implementation

  • Note: This content is under review
  • Partner with housing developers and landlords, along with social service agencies and providers, to identify appropriate housing units and program sites.
  • Recruit program participants through partnerships with social service agencies and community-based organizations, along with strategic street outreach.
  • Invest in a wide range of on-site services and staff, such as general case management, mental health (trauma-informed care, cognitive behavioral therapy, 12-step recovery, and more), professional and vocational training, and life skill-building classes.
  • Engage with program participants as with any other tenant, including providing a lease in their name, the ability to renew a lease at their discretion, and community and behavioral guidelines and rules similar to those found in any other housing community.
  • Subsidize rent to a significant degree, with tenants paying no more than 30 percent of their income towards rent and other living costs.
  • Incorporate consumer choice as much as possible, such as providing program participants with a range of housing styles and neighborhoods and deciding which on-site services to take advantage of.

Resources