- Investing in educator hiring and development: Educator recruitment and retention initiatives seek to identify, hire, train, and retain a wide range of educators, primarily teachers and school leaders. Programs are typically administered by districts but often include partnerships with local universities and funding from workforce development boards, cities and counties, and state boards of education.
- Prioritizing high-need roles: While some programs focus on filling general teaching gaps (like Teach for America) on a year-by-year basis, many initiatives prioritize specific subject areas (i.e. STEM) or roles (principals). Districts may also combine subject areas with roles, such as hiring and training principals to lead schools with a significant English-as-a-second-language population. More specialized pipelines tend to require more intensive training and recruitment components.
- Training and certifying educators: A major component of most educator pipeline initiatives is teacher certification and ongoing professional development. This may include partnering with local colleges who have experience providing teaching credentials and/or revising a district’s credential standards to better capture demonstrated competency through non-academic experience. A foundational component of teacher retention is building on existing teacher skillsets through professional development workshops, conferences, seminars and more.
- Increasing educator diversity: Some educator recruitment and retention programs focus on increasing diversity within a district workforce, rather than filling open positions more generally. While district-wide pipeline programs may include a diversity element, robust efforts to increase hiring teachers of color often require dedicated investments and partnerships for recruitment and training. Such initiatives can be incorporated into a jurisdiction’s broader racial equity plan.
While rigorous evaluations of merit-based pay, recruiting, and training programs showed favorable results on educator hiring and retention, effect sizes tended to be small and/or program effects were not long-lasting.
A 2020 meta-analysis on teacher pay incentives found that merit pay led to increased teacher retention while programs were in place. However, it found little evidence to support that these effects persisted after incentives ended or that these effects were long-lasting.
A 2011 systematic review found that teacher recruiting and training programs had positive effects on retention, job commitment, and job satisfaction. However, there were some studies in the review that showed mixed results.
A 2019 quasi-experimental study found that the Principal Pipeline Initiative — which emphasizes leader standards, pre-service preparation opportunities, selective hiring, and training and support — improved principal retention. PPI principals were 5.8 percentage points more likely to remain in their schools for two years than their non-PPI counterparts and 7.8 percentage points more likely to remain in their schools for at least three years.
A 2020 quasi-experimental study found that two out of three district-specific TEACh programs — an alternative teacher preparation pathway which focuses on recruitment and selection, pre-service training, on the job support — led to increased hiring and also helped fill hard-to-staff positions.
Implementing effective educator recruitment and retention interventions has been shown to improve outcomes predictive of upward mobility. These outcomes, identified by the Urban Institute, are effective public education, preparation for college, employment opportunities, opportunities for income, financial security, and social capital.
City and county leaders can assess local conditions for each of these outcomes using the metrics below, identified by the Urban Institute. This assessment can be used to determine whether this strategy is appropriate for their community. (Note: these metrics are a starting point for self-assessment and are not intended to be comprehensive.)
All cities and counties with populations over 75,000 can receive a customized data sheet here.
Measuring the effectiveness of public education in your community: Examine the average per-grade change in English Language Arts achievement between the third and eighth grades. These data are available from Stanford University’s Education Data Archive.
Measuring preparation for college in your community: Examine the share of 19- and 20-year-olds with a high school degree. These data are available from the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey.
Measuring employment opportunities in your community: Examine the employment-to-population ratio for adults ages 25 to 54. These data are available from the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey and the Bureau of Labor and Statistics’ Local Area Unemployment Statistics.
Measuring opportunities for income in your community: Examine the household income at 20th, 50th, and 80th percentiles. These data are available from the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey.
Measuring financial security in your community: Examine the share of households with debt in collections. These data are available from the Urban Institute’s Debt in America website.
Measuring social capital in your community: Examine the number of membership associations per 10,000 people and the ratio of residents’ Facebook friends with higher socioeconomic status to their Facebook friends with lower socioeconomic status. These data are available from the Census Bureau’s County Business Patterns and Opportunity Insights’ Social Capital Atlas, respectively.
- Invest in multi-dimensional recruitment: A robust talent pipeline requires significant recruiting capacity, including full-time staff members focused on talent and budget allocations for marketing. School leaders, district administrators, and teachers can also participate in recruiting events and direct outreach. Leverage existing district partners, especially community-based organizations and local colleges, to reach new audiences. Recruiting efforts should also include reaching people already connected to the school district, such as parents, siblings, paraprofessionals, and more.
- Reduce barriers to entry: A key component of educator recruitment and retention is evaluating and refining existing hiring criteria and requirements, such as credentials. Effective programs often expand eligibility criteria to include alternative forms of credential (beyond college degrees), which may include in-district training, teaching equivalency, or referrals to teaching fellowships.
- Leverage data tools: Investing upfront in a strong pipeline management system can yield numerous benefits. It can be used to evaluate individual program components, like the effectiveness of training and whether certain recruiting sources are resulting in high-quality educators. A data system can also be used for more advanced analysis, like matching school leaders with the schools that could most benefit from their specific skillset or expertise.
- Build pathways for growth: Districts can address both recruitment and retention by investing in regular opportunities for professional development and incorporating those opportunities into marketing materials. Such efforts may include formal skill building opportunities through workshops, access to supplemental credential programs delivered through university partners, and mentorship programs pairing new and experienced educators. Additionally, districts can incentivize long-term retention by prioritizing existing school staff when recruiting for school leadership pipelines.
- Identify vocal champions: Some changes to facilitate a robust educator pipeline, such as revisions to credential requirements, may be met with resistance from some existing stakeholders. To address that challenge, identify program champions from among school, district, and jurisdictional leaders. These leaders can help cultivate buy-in within individual schools and also play a major role in recruitment efforts.
Selective teacher recruitment program that places new teachers in under-resourced public schools
|Elementary and middle school success High school graduation High-quality employment
A comprehensive approach for school districts to identify, train, and place principals
|Elementary and middle school success High school graduation High-quality employment